Life being circular theory – die- ground- rocks and trees
- What if spirits were in the ground
- What if when we died we reconnected with the earth
- What if life and the spirit continued living through other ‘things’(will it be an object or a thing?)
How spirits live on through things
American west – native americans (indians)
- Apache, Sioux, Blackfeet and Cheyenne, each one led by its own Council of Elders. – spiritual beliefs
- ‘The only duty that members of the tribe had was to pray.’ -bitesize
- ‘They considered the worst crimes to be not looking after one’s parents, hurting people who were sick, or harming the religion.’ – –
- Also partly because they believed that their god, the Great Spirit, wanted them to live a life of continual moving.
- Tipis were circular, and Native Americans thought that: …the power of the world works in circles.
- Although many Native Americans believed in a great spirit – called Wakan Tanka – their religion was animistic. It was based on the desire to appease ‘the spirits’, which they did in a variety of ways.
- Animistic – Describes anyone of anything associated with animism – a belief that there are living souls in trees, stones, stars, etc
- Land was put here by the Great Spirit to support mankind.
- Land did not and could not belong to any one person.
- Land belonged to all the creatures.
- Land could not be sold.
- Land should be venerated because the ancestors were buried there.
- Land was beautiful and should be enjoyed by all.
- Land was eternal and imperishable.
- Spirits lived in the earth and it was unwise to anger them.
- The buffalo needed open land to migrate; fences and farms were impossible.
- Have you noticed that everything an Indian does is in a circle? And this is because the Power of the World always works in circles. The sky is round, and I am told that the earth is round like a ball. The wind, in its great power, whirls round. The seasons go round and round in a circle. The life of a man is a circle, from child to childlike. Our tipis were round like the nests of birds and were always set out in a circle. – Black Elk, Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux
New orleans – voodoo
4000 word critical essay
1000 word learning journal entry
Friday december 8th, 4pm
- Coherent argument supported by evidence and reason
- Include sustained analysis of a particular piece of visual or material culture
- Include introduction and conclusion
- Clean and concise
- Properly referenced and contain a bibliography at the end
- Skills of independent academic research
- Critically assess theoretical concepts and debates to formulate an argument
- Utilise knowledge from a range of transdisciplinary contextual approaches to analyse a specific example of visual or material culture.
- Evaluate contextual knowledge and understanding in relation to their own
What can i write about?
- One or more of the theories, ideas, contexts we have covered. In relation to your practice to any object we have talked about or any object you want
- Subject matters ( an object of study)
- Argument (what ‘you’ are saying)
- Supporting theory (the wider critical context)
Formative essay structure
Making and structuring arguments
- How (what theory does it use)
What are you writing about? – introduce what theories, what topics, what subject matters, which authors (introduction?) your what if may go here
How are you going to talk about this? What theoretical context are you going to be looking at to support your argument
Why are you writing about it? And for what purpose? What do we get out of your ideas, and who is it for? (conclusion)
What- whether a sculpture is an object designed to be touched
How- through cognitive neuroscience + exposing the complexity of touch and interconnectedness with other senses.
Why- to raise awareness
This essay will looks at
The multi senseory aspects of…
The spiritual aspects of…
What subject matter are you using? Why is it important to you? What has been said about it already? By who? What are you saying about it that may be different? – whats your problem?
What section comes early in the essay, after the intro
How does the thesis stand up to the challenge of what is already known?
Why does your research matter to anyone besides you?
Adresses larger implications of your ideas
What (context) (1000)
Why (findings/application) (1000)
What and how- critical and descriptive.
Descriptive writing – setting the background where an argument can be developed, it describes an idea
- Tells the ready what you’ve done
- Summary of a piece of literature
- Makes lists of things
What is critical writing?
- Acedemic debate
- Weigh up evidence and arguments of others
- Making a judgement of the quality of something
- Outlines implications and solutions
- Views something from many different angles
- Considers quality evidence and arguments
My mock abstract
This essay revolves around looking at if life and the spirit continues living on through other objects or things and how historic and religious beliefs can be directly related to everyday, common and present beliefs. This will be explored through the theories of animism and thingness, which will allow the analysis of history and religion as well as looking at the spiritual and physical aspects of an object. Through looking at animism and thingness in this way, this essay aims to explore whether the spirit survives physical deaths, if the spirit is real and if it is, does it continue living through a thing or an object or is it present on the earth as its own separate entity. This essay will also link these theories and beliefs to the idea of loved ones living on through objects, does their spirit exist still or do we just associate an object around them.
- Ideas of native americans being equal, everything has a spirit, part of nature, not superior
- Do loved ones continue living through other objects – like native american ideas
- Spiritual possession – does it happen?
- Pagan animism
- Linking historic and religious animism to everyday, common and present beliefs
- Spirit surviving physical deaths, is a spirit real? Does it remain on earth but as a ghost?